S.E.Perez Begliaffa, DFT/IF, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, M.Novello, ICRA/CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, R.Ruffini, ICRANet, Pescara, Italy.
The international conference entitled The Sun, the Stars, the Universe and General Relativity was held in Fortaleza, Brazil in May 2009 to celebrate three major events which occurred in Brazil and have fundamentally influenced scientific knowledge and development throughout the world:
1. The mission at Sobral to observe the Solar Eclipse of May 29, 1919 which according to Arthur Eddington, gave the first evidence for the observation of the bending of star light by the gravitational field of the Sun as predicted by Albert Einstein.
2. The discovery of the Pi meson by Cesare Lattes and Guiseppe Occhialini in Brazil and by Cecil Powell in England heralding the beginning of elementary particle physics.
3. The work on gravitational collapse by George Gamow and Mario Schoenberg on the URCA process, conceived at the "Cassino da URCA".
The proceedings of this conference highlight developments arising from these revolutionary discoveries including new space missions from South America, the Auger experiment in Argentina and the observations of gamma ray bursts and supernovae from the ESO Very Large Telescope in Chile.